MAPPING IUDEA: A CARTOGRAPHIC EXERCISE
This paper does not have the intention to handle the subject of maps depicting Siam as a country, neither on maps naming Ayutthaya in its many name
variants, or on maps describing the Chao Phraya River, but entirely focuses on maps of the City of Ayutthaya itself, prior to its destruction in 1767.

Simon de La Loubère wrote in his “Du Royaume de Siam” in 1691 that,
"Navigation has sufficiently made known the Sea Coasts of the Kingdom of
Siam, and many Authors have described them, but they know almost nothing of the Inland Country, because the Siamese have not made a Map of
their Country, or at least know how to keep it secret."
This remark shows that maps of Ayutthaya even at the end of the 17th century, and even close to
Ayutthaya’s doom, were scarce.

Many books and papers are already published on maps depicting Siam or Ayutthaya with survey and analysis, but this site is also in need of a reference
document on the subject, as city plans and maps are the main source for our research. The maps are cited following the timeline of their publication, as often
the cartographers - who provided the data to the map makers or engravers - are unknown to us. Short biographical information is given on these map
makers or engravers in order to present the maps in their historical setting. The series of maps given in this document are not complete, but the most
important are present. I will cite at the end, which maps are really worthwhile for a more detailed historical research.

Ayutthaya was established by King Ramathibodhi I (r. 1351 - 1369) in 1351 and rose quickly to power in the region around the Chao Phraya basin. The
basin formed its own social and political world. The new settlement grew over the centuries to become one of the nicest and prosperous cities in Asia.
Foreign merchants, Chinese and Persians, were already doing commercial trade in the region, prior to Ayutthaya’s foundation. These eastern merchants
certainly must have made drawings of the newly built city in full expansion, but none are discovered until today. The same goes for the westerners. Between
the mid 15th century, when the Venetian cartographer Fra Mauro (d.1460) painted Ayutthaya on the world map, and the 17th century with the arrival of the
Dutch in Siam, no drawings of Ayutthaya from that period have been discovered. It is rather strange that no Portuguese drawings or maps turned up,
although Portugal was in contact with Siam since Don Alfonso d'Albuquerque, the Viceroy of Portuguese India, conquered Malacca in 1511.

The first Dutch traders arrived in the capital Ayutthaya in 1604 hoping for a passage to China on a Siamese ship. Their mission was apparently delayed and
the Dutch saw some trade opportunity in Siam. In 1608 King Ekathotsarot (r. 1605 - 1610/11) allowed the “Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie” or
Dutch East India Company (abbreviated VOC) to establish their first trading post. The earliest drawings of the City of Ayutthaya were probably done by the
Dutch in the first half of the 17th century, most likely in Jeremias Van Vliet's (c.1602 - 1663) period between 1636 and 1640, when the first full accounts of
Ayutthaya and Siam were written. These drawings were done in The Netherlands, with a lot of European influences; based likely on one original and some
detailed sketches made in situ. [1]

Johannes Vingboons (c.1616 - 1670) was a Dutch cartographer and water colorist, who worked from 1640 until his death as a map maker in the service
of the Amsterdam map publisher Joan Blaeu. Blaeu was the chief map maker of the VOC, between 1638 and 1673 and was connected to the East India
House in Amsterdam. Vingboons made his “aquarelles” based on reports and sketches drawn by masters, helmsmen and merchants during their voyages
with the VOC and the Dutch West India Company (WIC). The first drawings of Ayutthaya by Vingboons were published around 1665.

He reproduced an oil painting of 97 cm by 140 cm showing a view of Iudea (Ayutthaya), being one of a set of ten oil paintings, for the purpose of decorating
the meeting room of the Heeren XVII (1) and other rooms in the East India House, the VOC headquarters. This painting is kept at the Rijksmuseum in
Amsterdam. [2] The painting shows hills in the background. As Ayutthaya lies in the lower floodplains of the Chao Phraya River, no hills are in its vicinity; but
in the rainy season, on a day with clear weather, we can see distant cloud banks on the horizon, easily taken for mountains.
(Iudea)
(Click the map to enlarge)
Vingboons also created a painting named "Afbeldinge der stadt Iudiad Hooft des Choonincrick Siam", a water color of 42 cm by 63.5 cm being part of the
Vingboons atlas (2). This painting is kept at the Koninklijke Bibliotheek in Amsterdam. [2] The city’s shape is completely distorted, which produces a wrong
ground plan. The painting is very detailed, which makes it possible to identify some major structures. [1]

Jan Janszoon Struys (c.1629 - c.1694) was a world traveller who wrote "Drie aanmerkelijke en seer rampspoedige reysen". Struys gives an account of
his adventures on three journeys. The most important for us is his first journey from 1649 till 1651, which took him to Siam, where he stayed from January till
March 1650. The book, which was published in 1676 in Amsterdam by Jacob van Meurs (c. 1619 - 1680), contained a sketch of Ayutthaya measuring 19
cm by 29 cm, based on Vingbooms' Iudea oil painting. The engraving was slightly modified and westernized. The popular book of Struys was reprinted
many times and translated in German, English and French. The engraving of Ayutthaya within was adapted and slightly modified.
(Afbeldinge der stadt Iudiad Hooft des Choonincrick Siam)
(Click the image to enlarge)
(De Stadt Judia - the first printed map)
(Click the image to enlarge)
(La Ville de Judia - Les voyages de Jean Struys - published in 1681
by Chés la Veuve de Jacob van Meurs (À Amstredam) engraving
of 18 cm by 28 cm)
The "Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith" sent French Apostolic Vicars of which the most important was Monseigneur Pierre Lambert de
la Motte, from the “Société des Missions Etrangères de Paris” (abbreviated MEP), to carry out missionary work in China and Indochina. The group arrived
in Ayutthaya in 1662. The French started to work on their relationship with the Siamese under King Narai (r. 1656 - 1688), which led to an exchange of a
series of embassies in the period 1684 - 1687. France's colonial intentions came slowly to the foreground, when the second embassy arrived with five ships
and 1300 troops in order to "protect" Bangkok and Mergui, the sea gates to Siam. King Petracha (r. 1688-1703), conscious of the situation, contained very
quickly the French dreams and showed them “manu militari” out. After the Dutch, the French thus were the next to introduce a number of drawings and maps
on Ayutthaya, done during their short presence in the second part of the 17th century.

Alain Manesson Mallet (1630 - 1706), was a French cartographer and engineer with a military background. Mallet painted the miniature "Iudia ou Siam"
(10 cm by 15 cm) in his "Description de l' Univers", a five volume world history, published by Thiery Denys in 1683. His drawing was likely inspired on the
engravings of Jan Janszoon Struys. The latter’s painting looks like it has been compressed together. Mallet’s German edition appeared in 1686.
(Iudia ou Sian)
(Click the image to enlarge)
Jean de Courtaulin de Maguelonne was born at Limoux (Aude). He entered the seminary of Saint-Sulpice in 1660 and left in 1663. After a short stay at
the Seminary of the Missions Etrangères de Paris (MEP), he left for Siam on 3 February 1670 and he arrived in October 1672. He stayed at the St Joseph
Mission until June 1674, when he left for Cochinchina. In 1685, Jean de Courtaulin left the mission including the Society of the MEP and returned to Paris.
As the new college at Maha Phram was established in 1680, the sketches must have been made or at least adapted by de Courtaulin prior his return to
France. The map was engraved (38 cm by 52 cm) after his return in France on basis of the sketches made in situ. It was published in 1686 by map seller,
Franciscus Jollain, the elder (1641-1704). The map is titled “Siam ou Iudia, Capitalle du Royaume de Siam Dessigné sur le lieu Par Mr Courtaulin missre
Apostolique de la Chine” and measured 52 cm by 37.5 cm. It is sufficient detailed to indicate the palaces, the churches (note that there are not any Buddhist
temples on this map), the different settlements of Asians and Westerners, etc. There are insets in the upper right corner of Lopburi and on the right side of the
Chao Phraya River.
(Siam ou Iudea)
(Click the image to enlarge)
Nicolas Gervaise (1662 - 1729) studied theology at the Catholic seminary in Maha Phram from 1682 till 1685. In 1688 he published in Paris his work
"Histoire Naturelle et Politique du Royaume de Siam" with a sketch of Ayutthaya based on Jan Janszoons Struys.
(La Ville de Judia)
In the “Nationaal Archief” of the Netherlands rests a colored drawing of 27 cm by 37 cm, being an inset of a larger map “Kaart van de Rivier van Siam, van
de Zee tot aan de Stad Siam ofte Judia” drawn by the land surveyor and mapmaker
Isaac de Graaff. The map is related to the VOC. The drawing dates
from the period 1690-1705. On the map we can clearly see the location of the Dutch Lodge or Hollandsche Logie.
(De Stadt Judia)
(Click the image to enlarge)
Simon de La Loubère (1642-1729) studied law and became secretary of the ambassador in Switzerland, M. De Saint Romain. de La Loubère was sent
on the second embassy to Siam by Louis XIV to convert King Narai to Catholicism. He departed Brest on 1 March 1687 and arrived in Siam on 27
September 1687. The embassy stayed only for four months. Simon de La Loubère's mission was a failure. He proved to have been a keen observer in his
account on his voyage. His work "Du Royaume de Siam" was first published in 1691 at Paris by Jean-Baptiste Coignard in two volumes. A second edition
came out at the same time in Amsterdam by Abraham Wolfgang. Simon de La Loubère's description of 17th century Siamese civilization is comprehensive,
well-organized, and extremely accurate. His accounts of physical geography, manners and customs, social and administrative structure, and religion remain
useful today. His careful observations, intelligent use of the accounts of others, and objectivity make this book universally regarded as the finest work on 17th
century Siam. The map, measuring 33.5 cm by 16 cm was reproduced by F. Erltinger and engraved by Michault.

His work was published by Thomas Horne in London under the title: "A New Historical Relation of the Kingdom of Siam" in 1693. The map was also
translated in English but misses the northern part of de La Loubère’s map. The map has been likely reduced in order to save print space to be able to put
several engravings on one page. [5]
Vincenzo Maria Coronelli (1650 - 1718) apprenticed as a xylographer, before joining the Convental Franciscans in 1665. After studying astronomy,
Coronelli began working in 1678 as a geographer. He was commissioned to make a set of Terrestrial and Celestial Globes for the Duke of Parma. Coronelli
lived in Paris from 1681 to 1683, where he constructed a similar pair of globes for King Louis XIV. He was cosmographer to the Republic of Venice and
founder of the Academia Cosmografica degli Argonauti, the world's first geographical society (1684). Coronelli derived his cartographic information from the
reports of Jesuit missionaries active in different regions in the world throughout the mid to late 18th century. In 1696 Coronelli engraved a map of Ayutthaya
for the “Atlante Veneto”, a comprehensive atlas intended as a continuation of the Blaeu Atlas Maior. The map is a reproduction of Jean de Courtaulin de
Maguelonne's 1986 map "Siam ou Iudea", although some modifications were done. The map is in a smaller format and measures 43 cm by 27 cm.
(Click the image to enlarge)
(Siam O Judia)
(Click the image to enlarge)
François Valentijn (1666 - 1727) worked most of his life as a preacher or minister for the Dutch reformed Church in the East Indies with the VOC. He
did two missions to the Far East. From 1685 to 1694, Valentijn was in the Moluccas and from 1706 to 1713 in East Java. On his return to Holland in 1714
he wrote the monumental work "Oud en Nieuw Oost-Indiën". It is a cornerstone of the most important and comprehensive works on the East. The work
deals mainly with the Dutch VOC commerce in the Indies, as well as the nature and history of the places described. He was supplied by the government with
a great amount of information, including charts and copies of several important documents. Using this as a basis, he added to it from personal observation
and from communications, oral and written, from many of the principal residents of the colony. The work was published in 1724 and consisted of five
volumes. In the third volume we find a map of Ayutthaya named "Judia, De Hoofd-Stad van Siam", copied after Johannes Vingboons. [2] The print
engraving of 38 cm by 29 cm is kept at the Koninklijke Bibliotheek in The Hague. The engraver has not been identified. The publishers in Dordrecht &
Amsterdam were Joannes van Braam and Gerard onder de Linden (1724-1726).

Another print engraving “De Groote Siamse Rievier Me-Nam ofte Moeder der Wateren inharen loop met de in vallende Spruyten Verbeeld” from the work
“Oud en Nieuw Oost-Indiën” by François Valentyn is found in part III of the second book, after page 60. The print from 1724 made by an unknown
surveyor and map maker measures 31 cm x 76,5 cm and has also been published by J. van Braam and Gerard onder de Linden. The VOC related map is
accompanied by key explanatory notes. Ayutthaya and its vicinity are clearly depicted on this detailed map of the Chao Phraya River. The print indicates
quite correctly settlements and monasteries around the Ayutthaya.
(Judia, De Hoofd-Stad van Siam)
(Click the image to enlarge)
Engelbert Kaempfer (1651 - 1716), a German physician, assumed the post of medical officer to the Dutch VOC factory on Dejima in the year 1690. On
his way from Batavia to Japan he resided in Siam from 06 Jun 1690 till 23 Jul 1690. The work “The History of Japan … together with a Description of the
Kingdom of Siam” was written after his return to Europe, where he went into medical practice in his native town. It was written in German, but it was the
English translation which appeared first in print in London in 1727. The English translation is the work of Johannes Gaspar Scheuchzer (1702 – 1729). It was
not until 1777 that the first volume of the original German text was published. The work is divided into five sections with appendices. The first describes his
journey from Batavia to Siam. In this work we find a most accurate map of Ayutthaya from his short visit to Siam in 1690.

In the same volume there was a map of the Chao Phraya River called “Mappa Meinam Fluvij” which had an inset of Ayutthaya in the upper left corner

Kaempfer kept during his stay in Ayutthaya a working map with drawings and notes on the city. The map was published in 1772. This original manuscript is
kept in the Sloane Collection at the British Library. [3] Unfortunately, this site possesses no copy of it yet.
(De Groote Siamse Rievier Me-Nam ofte Moeder der Wateren inharen
loop met de in vallende Spruyten Verbeeld)
(Click the image to enlarge)
(Click the image to enlarge)
(Mappa Meinam Fluvij)
(Click the image to enlarge)
Another copperplate printing of 19,5 cm by 28,5 cm called “de Stadt Judia” was made by an unknown engraver and published by Johannes Marshoorn ca
1742 - Jan Janszoon Struys, en Frans Jansz van der Heiden: “Drie aanmerkelyke reizen, door Italien, Griekenland, Lyfland, Moscovien [...]”, part I, after
page 28. Right of centre in the foreground is a dromedary pictured; a fictional element in this image. The print is kept at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. [2]
The most accurate map was the one of the French Jacques Nicolas Bellin (1703-1772). Bellin was the official hydrographer to the French king and the
Navy). He published in l' Abbé Prévost's "Histoire Générale des Voyages" of 1751 a map of Ayutthaya named “Plan de la Ville de Siam, Capitale du
Royaume de ce Nom; Levé par un Ingénieur François en 1687” based on sketches made probably by the French engineer La Mare. The latter is still a point
of discussion as there could been several other candidates as Tangsirivanich point out; Father Thomas (Tomasa) Valguarnera and Jean Vollant des
Verquains. Valguarnera is certainly not the drafter as he died in 1677, ten years prior the draft of the plan. Tangsirivanich, after some careful examination,
came to the conclusion that it was La Mare who engineered the plan. [5]
c.1753 the “Histoire Générale Des Voyages, Ou Nouvelle Collection De Toutes Les Relations De Voyages Par Mer Et Par Terre” of Jean-Pierre Joseph du
Bois was published by Pierre d' Hondt. The collection contained a print engraving of 15 cm by 21 cm named “Judia, Capitale de Siam. - Hoofd-stad van
Siam” and was executed by Jacobus van der Schley (1715-1779), the engraver of d' Hondt (Part XII after page 188). The print is kept at the Koninklijke
Bibliotheek in The Hague. [2]
(Plan de la Ville de Siam, Capitale du Royaume de ce Nom; Levé par un Ingénieur François en 1687)
(Click picture to enlarge)
(Judia / Capitale de Siam. / Hoofd-stad van Siam)
A print engraving of 14.5 cm by 26 cm going by the same name as the map of Bellin (Plan de la Ville de Siam, Capitale du Royaume de ce Nom; Levé par
un Ingenieur François en 1687) was published by J.P.J. du Bois in 1753 in the “Histoire Générale Des Voyages, Ou Nouvelle Collection De Toutes Les
Relations De Voyages Par Mer Et Par Terre” part XII, opposite p. 12. The engraver was Jacobus van der Schley, who worked for publisher Pierre
d'Hondt. This print can still be viewed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek in The Hague [2]
(Plan de la Ville de Siam, Capitale du Royaume de ce Nom; Levé par un Ingénieur François en 1687)
Jacques Nicolas Bellin (1703-1772) made another engraving larger than his first one, named “Ville de Siam ou Juthia”, which was published in the third
volume of “Le Petit Atlas Maritime” in 1764 (Paris).
Last is a Bellin-based map of Ayutthaya engraved by John Andrews (1736 - 1809) and published in "Plans of the Principal Cities in the World" by John
Stockdale - London c. 1776. (Copper engraved Plate XXXV - 25.5 cm by 35 cm - Scale 1 inch to 1800 feet). John Andrews was a geographer, land
surveyor, map seller and engraver who initially worked in London. He worked in conjunction with Andrew Dury, a collaboration which subsequently bore
fruit with the appearance of large scale county maps. Andrews continued to publish maps until about 1809, as well as town and area plans covering British
and European locations both alone and in association with others.  The dates of his birth (thought to be about 1740) and death have not been identified,
though he should not be confused with his contemporary, the historian John Andrews (1736-1809). [5]
(Ville de Siam ou Juthia)
With the above, the most important maps on the city of Ayutthaya have been cited. Following maps will be looked at more in detail: Johan Vingbooms’
“Afbeldinge der stadt Iudiad Hooft des Choonincrick Siam”, Jean de Courtaulin de Maguelonne's "Siam ou Iudea", François Valentijn's “De Groote Siamse
Rievier Me-Nam ofte Moeder der Wateren inharen loop met de in vallende Spruyten Verbeeld”, Engelbert Kaempfer’s Ayutthaya map, and Jacques be
done at a later stage and posted on site.

This article contains also a short presentation on the maps above:
Maps of Ayutthaya
Text by Tricky Vandenberg - September 2009
Footnotes:

1. The Heeren XVII had officially overall control over the VOC.
2. The Vingboons atlas was a series of 130 water colours bound in three volumes. The largest atlas was bought in 1654 by Queen Christina of Sweden and
came into the possession of Pope Alexander VIII after her death. The Volumes are now kept in the library of the Vatican. The next largest collection, more
than hundred works, is in the possession of the National Archives in The Hague.

References:

[1] Van Vliet’s Siam (2005) - Chris Baker & Alfons van der Kraan - page 4.
[2] http://www.atlasofmutualheritage.nl – date retrieved 03 Sep 2009.
[3] http://www.henry-davis.com - Fra Mauro's Map, 1459 data retrieved on 03 Sep 2009.
[4] Ayudhya: A cartographic vision 1459-1800 - Thavatchai Tangsirivanich - paper presented at the Siam Society, Bangkok on 25 November 2006.
[5] Alan Ruston - October 2004.
(John Andrews - c. 1776)