KRUNG KAO





Although this page is not directly related to the Ayutthaya era, it is interesting to know how the administrative structure of Ayutthaya Province evolved after the fall of Ayutthaya in the early Rattanakosin period (1782-1932 CE).

Based on the laws at that time, Jangwat Krung Kao consisted of Krung Kao (1) itself and four districts [Th: Khwaeng] outside the city. The area outside the city walls was called Khwaeng Rob Krung (2). Khwaeng Uthai was adjacent to Khwaeng Rob Krung and expanded east and south towards the provincial boundary. Khwaeng Nakhon was adjacent to Khwaeng Rob Krung and Khwaeng Uthai and extended north and the northwest. Khwaeng Sena was adjacent to Khwaeng Rob Krung and Khwaeng Nakhon districts and expanded from the northwest to the south. [1]

From Rama IV (King Mongkut - reign 1851-1868 CE) until Rama VI (King Vajiravudh - reign 1910-1925 CE), the administrative division of the province underwent some changes. Due to population growth and an increase in the province, the four districts were split up, so that the number increased from four to seven districts: Khwaeng Uthai split up into Uthai Yai and Uthai Noi Khwaeng Nakhon split up into Nakhon Yai and Nakhon Noi Khwaeng Sena split up into Sena Yai and Sena Noi. [1]

In 1893 CE, Monthon Krung Kao (3) was created, consisting of the provinces Krung Kao (present Ayutthaya), Ang Thong, Lop Buri, Phrom Buri, and Sara Buri. Krung Kao was one of the first ‘monthons’ established as a trial of the ‘Thesaphiban’ administrative system, introduced by Prince Damrong Rajanubhab, a system officialised by the Local Administration Act of 1897 CE.

In 1895 CE, new changes in the administration occurred. Two more districts were created, bringing the number to eleven (the city not included): Nakhon Yai and Nakhon Noi were split up, establishing the Khwaeng Nakhon Klang and Khwaeng Nakhon Nai, Sena Yai and Sena Noi were split up, establishing Khwaeng Sena Klang and Khwaeng Sena Nai. Khwaeng Uthai Noi was renamed Phra Ratcha Wang. The eleven districts were as thus: Rob Krung, Uthai Yai, Phra Ratcha Wang, Nakhon Yai, Nakhon Noi, Nakhon Nai, Nakhon Klang, Sena Yai, Sena Noi, Sena Nai and Sena Klang. [1]

Later, a part of Khwaeng Uthai Yai and Khwaeng Nong Khae in Saraburi Province became Khwaeng Uthai Noi, the twelfth district. In 1904 CE, Khwaeng Nakhon Klang was renamed Amphur Nakhon Luang. [2]

In 1915 CE, Monthon Krung Kao was expanded with two provinces: Thanyaburi and Pathum Thani.





(Old picture of the Krung Kao District House)



In 1917 CE, in the reign of Rama VI, the administrative division of Krung Kao Province was again altered: Uthai Yai was renamed Uthai Uthai Noi was renamed Wang Noi Phra Ratcha Wang was renamed Bang Pa-In Nakhon Yai was renamed Maha Rat Nakhon Noi was renamed Tha Rua Nakhon Nai was renamed Bang Pahan Sena Yai was renamed Phak Hai Sena Noi was renamed Ratcha Khram Sena Klang was renamed Sena Sena Nai was renamed Bang Ban. Monthon Krung Kao was officially changed into Jangwat Krung Kao. [3]

On 19 March 1918 CE, Jangwat Krungkao was renamed Jangwat Phra Nakhon Sri Ayutthaya and Monthon Krung Kao became Monthon Ayutthaya. [4]

The monthon system was finally abolished with the Provincial Administration Act of 1933 CE, a year after the "coup d'état" changed the absolute monarchy into a democracy.

On 17 April 1939 CE, Amphur Ratcha Khram was renamed Bang Sai (บางไทร). [5]

Presently, there are sixteen districts in Ayutthaya Province. Most of the earlier-mentioned districts still exist, and four more were created in the 20th century. Tambon Ban Phraek split off from Maha Rat District in 1937 CE to become a ‘King Amphur’ or ‘branched district’, becoming a full-grown district in 1959 CE. Tambon Lat Bua Luang split off from Bang Sai District (บางไทร) and became a district itself in 1947 CE. Bang Sai (บางซ้าย) was created as a branched district (King Amphur) in 1947 CE and split off from Sena district. [6]. It was upgraded to a full district in 1958 CE. [7] Phachi split off from Uthai District in 1953 CE.

The 16 districts are present: Phra Nakhon Sri Ayutthaya, Tha Ruea, Nakhon Luang, Bang Sai (บางไทร), Bang Ban, Bang Pa-In, Bang Pahan, Phak Hai, Phachi, Lat Bua Luang, Wang Noi, Sena, Bang Sai (บางซ้าย), Uthai, Maha Rat and Ban Phraek.





(The Krung Kao District House on Phraya Boran Ratchathanin's map of 1926 CE)



Footnotes:


(1) Krung Khao can be translated as "Old City".

(2) Khwaeng is the old denomination of a modern district today. Khwaeng Rob Krung can be translated as "the area around the city".

(3) Monthon [Skt: mandala] can be translated as "circle", a collection of several provinces under a royal commissioner [Th: thesaphiban].


References:


1] อธิบายแผนที่พระนครศรีอยุธยากับคำวินิจฉัยของพระยาโบราฌราชาธานินท์ ฉบับชำระครั้งที่๒ และ ภูมิสถนกรุงศรีอยุธยา (2007). pp 101-2.

[2] Royal Gazette of 30 August 1904 volume 20 page 353 - retrieved 06 Sep 2010 at http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th.

[3] Royal Gazette of 29 April 1917 volume 34 page 41- retrieved 06 Sep 2010 at http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th.

[4] Royal Gazette of 23 March 1919 volume 35 page 412 - retrieved 06 Sep 2010 at http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th.

[5] Royal Gazette of 17 April volume 56 page 359 - retrieved 06 Sep 2010 at http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th.

[6] Royal Gazette of 09 Dec 1947 volume 64 - retrieved 06 Sep 2010 at http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th.

[7] Royal Gazette of 22 Jul 1958 - retrieved 06 Sep 2010 at http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th.





(Aerial view of the location of the former District House)