|THE DUTCH-SIAMESE TREATY OF 1664
|In the reign of King Narai (1656-1688) the relationship between the Dutch VOC and the king of Siam started to deteriorate. In 1661, a Portuguese
vessel transporting a cargo of the Siamese King was confiscated by the Dutch flyboat Het Rode Hert near the islands of Macao. King Narai claimed
an indemnity for the loss sustained against the Dutch East India Company of 84,000 Florins.
In 1662 the king imposed a royal monopoly on all trade and started to send his own trading ships to Japan. The Dutch saw their monopoly on trading
hides collapsing. In 1662 another junk with goods and merchandise belonging to the king of Siam was taken near Pulo Ai (Banda Islands). Early
1663 when the news reached the king, the relationship deteriorated completely and the Dutch factory was besieged by armed Chinese. The acting
resident, Enoch Poolvoet, on instruction of Batavia (VOC HQ), managed to escape his station and withdrew in silence with his crew and goods past
Bangkok and warehouse Amsterdam into the Bar of Siam and announced the king of his departure to Batavia.
By September 1663 three VOC ships blocked the estuary of the Chao Phraya River, preventing vessels going or leaving Siam. King Narai realized
he had gone too far in alienating the Dutch, felt the economic loss by this blockade and sent in 1664 an envoy to Batavia in order to regularize
On 21 June 1664, Captain Pieter De Bitter was sent as an envoy to the court of Siam and managed to secure a renewal of the Dutch-Siamese treaty
on 22 August, returning on 30 November to Batavia. The Dutch obtained the sole monopoly of the trade in hides, and Siam undertook not to employ
any Chinese on her ships, rendering it impossible for Siam to compete with Holland in the China trade. There was also an extra-territorial jurisdiction
clause in which Dutchmen committing a crime in Siam will be punished according to the Netherlands laws. A translation of the Dutch - Siamese
treaties of 22 August, you can find here under.
|First Dutch-Siamese Treaty
11 August O. S. (22 August N. S.) 1664.
Agreement end closer Alliance of Peace made and concluded between his Majesty the King of Siam on the one side and the Commissary
Pieter de Bitter on the other, deputy of the Governor General Jan Maetsuijcker (1) and Council of India ruling (in the name and on the
behalf of the high and mighty states General of the United Netherlands) the State of the United East India Company in the East.
Firstly, it is agreed, concluded and determined, that from now onwards and henceforth a just, inviolable, secure, sincere alliance and
friendship shall exist and be maintained between the King of Siam and the Netherlands Company, together with the subjects of both, and
that from this day onwards such questions, differences and further disputes as have risen between his Majesty's subjects and the Company
shall be put out of mind and never more thought of, provided the King punishes and shall punish duly and as they deserve the authors of
the affronts done to the Company.
Secondly, it is agreed that henceforth the Company shall enjoy in Siam, Ligor, (2) Oetjangh Salangh, (3) and all other places and lands of
the King, without exception, the peaceful, undisturbed exercise of trade in all such goods and merchandise as are to be found in each
(place), without reservation of any nature whatever.
Item. That the Company shall have power to trade, deal and correspond with all and any persons that they choose, he they of high or low
degree, without let or hindrance, either direct or indirect, from any person whatsoever.
Further it is agreed and determined, that neither now nor hereafter shall the Company be charged with, nor have raised against them, in
any manner whatever, higher duties etc. on imported or exported goods and merchandise, be it in Siam, Ligor, Oetjangh-Salangh or
anywhere else, hut shall satisfy and pay all dues according to former customs, as has been stipulated and agreed in the statutory ordinance
of the King.
Item. It is agreed that neither now nor hereafter shall his Majesty the King or his subjects, of whatever station they may be, have the power
to place any Chinese, viz., the inhabitants of Japan, Canton, Cochin-China, Tonquin, on their junks, ships or smaller vessels, much less to
endeavour to introduce men of that nation within their boundaries; that all junks and ships on which natives of that country shall be
found, if met by ours at sea, shall be seized as prizes and the Company shall not be bound at any time to make any restitution.
Further, it is agreed and determined that the said Company shall for all time have the exportation of all the deerskins and cowhides which
come to Siam, as also the retailing of all other merchandize from any other nation or of any kind, and his Majesty shall be bound by all
means to maintain the Company in this privilege.
Moreover, if it, should happen that any debtors refuse to make their payments to the Company, as has formerly happened frequently, his
Majesty shall, through Oja Berckelang, (4) the advocate of the foreigners, give his assistance, and those debtors he shall keep in strict
confinement until the Company shall have received its own, and in case the company fail to secure payment of just claims by these means,
then the King or Oja Berckekang shall be bound to hand over said debtors to the Company.
In case (which God forbid) any of the Company's residents should commit a serious crime in Siam, the King and the judges shall not have
the right to judge him, but he must be handed over to the Company's chief to be punished according to the Netherlands laws, and if it
should happen that the said Chief was his accomplice in a capital offence, his Majesty is to have the power to keep them both confined in
their own houses until he has sent word of the matter to the Governor General.
Further, it is agreed and determined, that in compensation for the capture of one of his Majesty's junks by the fly boat Het Rode Hert, three
years ago, near the islands of Maccauw, (5) the Company shall pay to his Majesty as restitution a sum of 156 catties in Siam coinage or
18,720 guilders, his Majesty moreover to resign all claim formerly made to the property on account of the seizure of the said junk.
Item, it is agreed and determined that the Company shall restore and hand over to his Majesty such goods and merchandize belonging to
the King as were recently taken from one of the same junks coming from Japan by the flyboat Hoorghcarpsel, (?) near the island of
Item, it is agreed and determined, that whenever it shall happen that his Majesty resolves to send a junk manned by Siamese to Japan, the
Company shall he bound to deliver to the King 7,000 or 10,000 deer-skins (provided the supply of the same skins is large or average that
year) at the price at which they were bought, on condition that his Majesty's factors, or some one else, shall under-take (not) to buy directly
or indirectly any skins, still less to have them collected by others.
If it should happen at any time that his Majesty should determine to send envoys to Pachin (Pekin) to the great Cham, he shall have the
right to send with his ambassadors two Canton Chinese, experienced in the Tartar tongue, that is to say, so long as the Company continues
and remains in friendship with that Prince.
That the junks or ships, not only of his Majesty but also of his subjects manned by Siamese, shall have the right to voyage to Maccauw,
Manila, Canton or other place so long as the Company is in friendship and alliance with those places, wherefore for the security of their
voyaging passes or letters shall be given them. That all junks and ships of the allied friends of the United East India Company, who come
from other places and are designed for the Kingdom of Siam on the Company's shipment not be let or hindered in the accomplishment of
their voyage, provided that no native of a hostile nation be among them.
In case the Company's ships happen to meet at sea any junks manned by Siamese belonging to his Majesty the King or his subjects, they
shall put no let or hindrance in the way of their voyage, hut on the contrary shall show them all helpfulness (if they ask it) provided they are
not going to a place with which the Company is at enmity and war. If at any time it should happen (which God forbid) that some of the
Company's ships should through danger or other reason, be shipwrecked on or near lands subject to his Majesty and also if his Majesty's
junks in like manner, should meet with the same misfortune near the Company's ports or districts, the subjects of the same at the place
where this shall happen, must give a helping hand in saving the goods and the people on board and also see to it that all such as it may
concern should at the earliest convenience give up and surrender the salved goods and the former crew.
That the Company shall not have the right here in Siam to attack any ships or junks nor to commit any, even the smallest hostilities
These prescribed points shall he maintained and followed, not only by the present King of Siam and the present Governor General Jan
Maetsuijcker and the Council of India, but also by their respective successors and followers for ever and ever.
Done, agreed and decided thus in the city Judia, in the Kingdom of Siam, on the 22nd August 1664, and sealed with the King's seal in red,
having the figure of a Siamese angel or devil on it, and below with the Company's seal. 
* The remainder of this passage is obscure. It deals with the attitude of the Dutch towards ships belonging to powers with which they were at enmity.
(1) Jan Maetsuyker was born at Amsterdam on 14 Oct 1606. He studied Law in Louvain. He was assigned on 4 Oct 1636 in the function of
Pensioner at the Court of Justice at Batavia and became Chief Bailiff of the town in 1638. Promoted to Extra-ordinary Council of Dutch Indies in
1641 and Ordinary Council of Dutch Indies on 10 Aug 1644 and Envoy of the High Government at Goa. He became Governor of Ceylon on 19 Jan
1645 until 1650. On 26 Apr was assigned to the First Council of the Indies and Director General of Trade. Received the highest function on 18 Mai
1653 being commissioned as Governor General of the Dutch East-Indies. It took until 8 Oct 1654 before de Heeren XVII confirmed his function as
he had to revoke his Roman Catholic background and embrace the established church (Calvinism). He occupied the post of Governor General for 25
years. Maetsuyker died at Batavia on 4 Jan 1678. [Source: NNBW]
(2) Nakhon Sri Thammarat
(4) Berkelang - Chao Phraya (or Okya) Phra Klang, Senabodi or Minister of Foreign Affairs and Maritime Trade. Sakdina marks of 10000.
Referred to as Barcalon by western foreigners. The Phra Klang, was in charge of the royal warehouses, the commercial monopolies controlled by the
Court, and the relations with foreigners. In se he was the King's personal merchant.
(6) Pulau Ay or Ai or Way - part of the main group of Banda Islands.
|Second Dutch-Siamese Treaty
11 August O. S. (22 August N. S.) 1664.
There shall be perpetual peace between the Contracting parties, on condition that the King causes those who have molested the Company
to be severely punished. The Dutch will be allowed a free trade throughout the Kingdom of Siam, on paying the established duties, but
without being subject to any other restrictions. His Highness will prohibit Chinese being employed on board of Junks trading to certain
places specified in the original contract, and all junks of this description which shall be found to have any Chinese on board will be lawful
prize to the Dutch cruizers.
The exportation of deer and cow skins is entirely ceded to the Company. Respecting Company's debtors, the same practice will be adopted
as heretofore established, &ca. 
 Giles, Francis H. - Analysis Of Van Vliets Account of Siam - Part 7 - JSS 30 3b.
|(Adm. Pieter de Bitter - Picture retrieved
seaforces.org - 8 July 2017)
|Pieter de Bitter
Pieter de Bitter was possibly a descendant of Jacob de Bitter (d. 1609). He was appointed envoy of the Dutch East India Company to the King of
Makassar in 1661 and could achieve that the Prince promised to return the Island of Boeton to the Crown of Ternate. In 1663, he was sent again to
Makassar, as the King did not fulfil his promise, after which the return of the Island took quickly place. The same year de Bitter became Governor of
After his return from Siam end 1664, were he was sent as an envoy to manage a renewal of the Dutch-Siamese treaty he was appointed as
Commander of the Dutch East India homeward-bound fleet. On 24 Dec 1664, he left the Roads of Batavia with 11 eleven richly laden ships
estimated a value of 11 million Guilders. From a French ship, he was warned that a new war had started between the Dutch and the English (1) and
that the latter were on the watch for him. He decided to steer north and arrived safely at in the neutral harbour of Bergen (Norway) on 8 August
On the 10th of August, 14 English war ships, 3 fire ships (2) and 4 ketches (3) under Rear Admiral Sir Thomas Teddiman reached Bergen, dropping
anchor at the entrance of the bay. The English attacked in the early morning of 12 August. de Bitter had posted eight of his best vessels in a crescent
and had the rest of his crews manned the Danish forts protecting the harbour. After nearly four hours of fighting, the English losses had become so
serious that Teddiman had to retreat and fled the Norwegian waters. The Dutch remained in Bergen for another 3 weeks until a Dutch fleet under
Michiel de Ruyter arrived to escort them home. Pieter de Bitter was awarded a gold chain with a medal and the sum of 1,500 guilders by the East
India Company in recognition of his bravery at Bergen. A possible relative from him is Johanna Maria de Bitter (born in Hertogenbosch in 1656, the
mother being Maria Donckers), who in 1675 became the second wife of Johannes de Hartogh from Rotterdam. 
(1) The Second Anglo-Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667) was a conflict fought between England and the Dutch United Provinces for
control over the seas and trade routes, where England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade during a period of intense European
commercial rivalry. The Dutch succeeded in winning this war.
(2) A fire ship is a vessel of any sort, set on fire and sent into an anchorage with the aim of causing consternation and destruction. The idea is to force
an enemy fleet into open sea in a confused and therefore vulnerable state.
(3) A ketch (Dutch: kits) is a sailing craft with two masts. The distinguishing characteristic of a ketch is that the forward of the two masts being the
main mast, is larger than the rear mast.
 Giles, Francis H. - Analysis Of Van Vliets Account of Siam - Part 7 - JSS 30 3b.
 Nieuw Nederlands Biografisch Woordenboek (NNBW) and Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden (Van der Aa).