1500 CE





1509 - War on Pahang - In 1509 occurred the last engagement between Malayan and Siamese Forces. The Maharajah of Ligor (present Nakhon Sri Thammarat), Dewa Susa, was ordered by the King of Siam to attack Pahang. Sultan Mahumed of Malacca sent assistance to Pahang, and in a few days, his men finished a large fort. The Rajah of Ligor attacked - apparently in a rather nonchalant way - and his army was decimated and completely dispersed. Dewa Susa fled to the uplands of Pahang and proceeded straight by land to Kelantan, from where he returned to Ligor. [Reference: Political and commercial considerations relative to the Malayan Peninsula - John Anderson (1824) - Page 24 - Conquest of Quedah and Perak.]


1511 - The King of Siam sent an envoy to Malacca on the return of Duarte Fernandez, the envoy of Alfonso de Albuquerque, to Siam. [Ref: English Intercourse with Siam in the 17th century - John Anderson (1890) Galvano - Discoveries of the World, Hakluyt Soc, 1862, page 112.]


1514 - Siamese tribute mission to China. The emperor Cheng-te (reign 1506–1521), also written as Zhengde, of the Ming Dynasty, ordered some of the embassy to be detained to teach the Siamese. [Ref: Bowring, John (1857) - The Kingdom and People of Siam Vol I - London, John W. Parker and Son, West Strand - page 75.]


1515 - War with Lampang - The King of Siam, accompanied by his sons, Prince Ek and Prince Athitya, drove back the Laotians and followed them with his army as far as Nakhon Lampang. A battle was fought on the banks of the Mae Wang River. The Laotians were defeated, and the Siamese captured Nakhon Lampang. A celebrated Buddha image, carved out of black stone, together with other booties, was taken to Ayutthaya. [Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 99.]


1516 - The Portuguese in Malacca sent a third envoy, named Duarte de Coelho [Duarte Coelho Pereira (c. 1485-1554)], to Ayutthaya and concluded a fresh treaty with Siam. They promised to supply the Thais with guns and ammunition. The Siamese agreed to guarantee religious freedom as well as to facilitate the efforts of the Portuguese in establishing settlements and engaging in trade. The King permitted de Coelho to erect a wooden crucifix in a prominent place in Ayutthaya. The final result of these treaties was that the Portuguese were permitted to reside and carry-on trade at Ayutthaya, Tenasserim, Mergui, Pattani and Nakhon Sri Thammarat. As many as 300 Portuguese nationals subsequently settled down in Ayutthaya: some traders and some military experts. The Portuguese expressed their desire that the Siamese be sent to settle down in Malacca in place of the Arab traders who had left the city following the Portuguese conquest. Portugal appointed a trade representative in Nakhon Si Thammarat and Pattani to conduct trade in rice, tin, ivory, gum benjamin, indigo, sticklac and sappan wood. [Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 98.]


1516 - Birth of Tabin Shweti on Wednesday the 1st of waning May 878 CS. [Ref: Burmese Invasions of Siam, Translated from the Hmannan Yazawin Dawgyi - Nai Thien - Journal of the Siam Society - Vol. 5.1 (1908) - page 3.]


1517 - The Portuguese opened up trade with Patani soon after Duarte Coelho's mission to the capital of Siam. [Ref: English Intercourse with Siam in the 17th century - John Anderson (1890) - Page 44.]



Reign of King Borommaracha IV (1529-1533)


1531 - Tabin Shweti ascended the throne on the death of his father, the King of Toungoo, Maha Thirizeya Thura, on Thursday, 5th of waxing December 892 CS, at the age of fifteen. He took the name Mintara Shweti and founded the Toungoo Dynasty (1531-1752). [Reference: Burmese Invasions of Siam, translated from the Hmannan Yazawin Dawgyi - Nai Thien - Journal of the Siam Society - Vol. 5.1 (1908) - page 3. Tabinshwehti (ruled from 1531-50) restored the kingship and founded the Toungoo Dynasty (1531-1752). [Ref: Geraldo U. de Sousa - Travel, imagination, and the strangest of theaters: Mendes Pinto’s travels and Gil Vicente’s Barca do inferno - R.cient./FAP, Curitiba, v.4, n1, p.1-15, Jan./Jun. 2009 A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 102.]



Reign of (child) King Ratsada Kuman (1533 - 1534)



Reign of King Chairacha (1534-1547)


1537 - Mintara Shweti (Tabin Shweti), King of Toungoo, subjugates Hanthawaddy after repeated attempts. The king of Hanthawaddy fled to his brother-in-law, the King of Prome. Mintara Shweti continued his offensive actions and captured Martaban, after which Moulmein submitted. He moved his royal seat to Hanthawaddy as he conquered the whole of the Mon territory. He became known as the King of Hanthawaddy in Siamese History but was not a Mon by birth. [Ref: Burmese Invasions of Siam, Translated from the Hmannan Yazawin Dawgyi - Nai Thien - Journal of the Siam Society - Vol. 5.1 (1908) - page 3.]


1538 - Portuguese merchants are allowed to build a church in Ayutthaya. [K. Subamonkala , “La Thailande et ses relation avec la France”, Paris 1940, p. 20 Cerruti, Pietro - The Jesuits in Thailand - Part I, 1607-1767]


1538/9 - The Chiang Kran War - The King of Taungu, Tabeng Shwe Thi, came into conflict with the Siamese during his war against Pegu in 1538-40. Tabeng Shwe Thi occupied the town of Chiang Kran (now called Gyaing in the Moulmein district), which was subjected to Siam. King Chairacha attacked the Burmese and drove them out of his dominion. In this military expedition, he was assisted by his Portuguese mercenaries (Ref: The Travels, Voyages and Adventures of Ferdinand Mendez Pinto), which did such a good service that they were rewarded with commercial and residential privileges. [Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 102-3 / Pinto - Bangkok Post - 05 April 2008.]





Wiang Khuk (also known as Meuang Khuk) was an important settlement on the opposite side of the Mekong to Say Fong in today’s Thai province of Nong Khai. This site still features a significant body of material evidence attesting to its importance as a Dvaravati, then Khmer, and later a Lao city. Thai archaeologists have found Buddha images among the ruins of Wiang Khuk, which reveal styles akin to those of the important Khmer centre of Lopburi (in today's Central Thailand), suggesting that Wiang Khuk dated back to the eleventh century and was established at the same time as Say Fong.



1540 - Wiang Khuk was noted as the site of a major battle between the Lan Chang armies of King Phothisarat (reign 1520–1547) and the armies of Ayutthaya in 1540. It appears to have borne the brunt of the forward defence of Vientiane during that war, during which it was probably sacked. [Ref: Sila Viravong. History of Laos (pp. 51, 74. 82, 102] M. G. Maspero. (1940). ‘Le Royaume de Vieng-Chan’ Revue Indochinoise, 1, 500 Vientiane: Transformations of a Lao Landscape - Marc Askew, Colin Long, William Logan, Routledge, (2006).]


1542 - Mintara Shweti (Tabin Shweti), King of Hanthawaddy, takes Prome after a protracted siege in 904 CS. [Ref: Burmese Invasions of Siam, Translated from the Hmannan Yazawin Dawgyi - Nai Thien - Journal of the Siam Society - Vol. 5.1 (1908) - page 3.]


1545 - War with Chiang Mai - In 1545, King Chairacha was called upon by a Northern Shan Prince to intervene in the Chiang Mai affairs. King Müang Kesa (Ket Chettharat) of Chiang Mai became insane and was murdered. The conspirator, one Saen Dao, offered the throne to the Prince of Kengtung, who refused and to Prince Mekuti of Müang Nai. The Prince of Hsenwi sent an army to invade Chiengmai to punish Saen Dao for the murder of the King of Chiang Mai. Failing to take the town Mün Hoa Khien, the Hsenwi General established himself at Lamphun and dispatched messengers to ask for the aid of King Chairacha. King Chairacha at once set out for Chiang Mai. The Governor of Phitsanulok formed the vanguard. The army encamped at Kamphaeng Phet, then at Chiang Thong and finally moved to Chiang Mai. During that time, nobles opposed to Saen Dao requested the aid of the King of Luang Prabang, came down from Chieng Saen and succeeded in taking the city of Chieng Mai. They executed Saen Dao and his adherents and set up Princess Chiraprapha as Regent of Chiang Mai pending the arrival of Prince Settha from Luang Prabang. King Chairacha arrived at Chiengmai in June 1545, only to find his prime objective, the removal of Saen Dao, already fulfilled. The Princess Regent of Chiang Mai received the Siamese King in a friendly manner and the latter spent some time in Chiang Mai. He returned with his army to Ayutthaya in September. [Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 20 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum, Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong, Royal Autograph A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 100-3.]


1546 - Mintara Shweti (Tabin Shweti), King of Hanthawaddy, laid siege to Arakan upon a succession dispute after the king died. Sandown and other territories were split from Arakan and given to the deceased king’s brother. The dead king’s son governed the remaining part of Arakan. Both were subjected to Hanthawaddy. It was in this configuration Hanthawaddy engaged in war with Siam. [Ref: Burmese Invasions of Siam, Translated from the Hmannan Yazawin Dawgyi - Nai Thien - Journal of the Siam Society - Vol. 5.1 (1908) - page 4.]


1546 - Prince Mekuti of Muang Nai, with the support of the Prince of Yawnghwe (Southern Shan State), invaded Chiang Mai territory, but Princess Regent Chiraprapha drove out their armies. A Luang Prabang force arrived in Chiang Mai to assist Prince Settha, the oldest son of the King of Luang Prabang, to be set on the throne of Lan Na Thai. King Chairacha set out with an army for Chiang Mai, likely being called in for assistance by the Chiang Mai Regent against Prince Mekuti. The vanguard came again from Phitsanulok and the armies gathered at Kamphaeng Phet. From there, they proceeded to Chiang Mai via Lamphun. The Siamese vanguard attacked Lamphun and burnt down a significant part of the city. King Chairacha arrived with his army, and they advanced on Chieng Mai. The city was attacked for three days but could not be captured. King Chairacha decided, after destroying some temples and many houses near Chiang Mai, to retreat. The Laotians pursued the Siamese army and defeated it at Wat Chiang Krung (presently in the Saraphi district). The Siamese retreat continued through Mueang Li. The Prince of Nan, Yi Mangkala, assisted by troops of Chiang Mai and Nakhon Lampang, attacked the retreating Siamese. The Governors of Kamphaeng Phet and Phichai were killed in this battle. The Siamese were again ambushed farther south, near the Phun Sam Mun River and once more routed, with the loss of three Generals, 10,000 men, and 3,000 boats. After these severe heavy losses, King Chairacha returned to Ayutthaya. [Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 21 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum, Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong, Royal Autograph. / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 105.]


1547? - The King of Siam sent Thamein Kanburi (Phraya Kanchanaburi) and Thamein Dawtaka (Phraya Tak?) with 200 elephants, 1000 horses and 60,000 men to capture Tavoy. On the arrival of the Siamese troops, the Governor showed little resistance and fled to Ye. Mintara Shweti (Tabin Shweti), King of Hanthawaddy, sent 40,000 men by water with a flotilla of 100 big and 300 small sailing vessels, 200 elephants, 2,000 horses and 80,000 men by land to expel the Siamese from Tavoy. The expedition was a success, and the Burmese followed the Siamese forces well into Siamese territory. This Siamese attack was one of the triggers of the first siege of Ayutthaya in 1548. [Ref: Burmese Invasions of Siam, Translated from the Hmannan Yazawin Dawgyi - Nai Thien - Journal of the Siam Society - Vol. 5.1 (1908) - page 4.]


1547 - King Chairacha died from a sudden illness in 1547, probably poisoned by one of his four non-royal consorts, Thao Sri Suda Chan. Although not customary, his son, Prince Yot Fa, eleven years old and son of Thao Sri Suda Chan, ascended the throne of Ayutthaya, becoming the 14th King of Ayutthaya. After the cremation of King Chairacha, Prince Thianracha, who was a younger half-brother and of the same royal lineage as King Chairacha, sensing the danger of being made away as the conduct of affairs was in the hands of the King's mother, ordained as a monk at Racha Praditsathan Monastery. [Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 21 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum, Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong, Royal Autograph A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 106 - 108.]



Reign of (child) King Yot Fa (1547-1548)


1547 - Prince Settha was crowned as King Setthathirat shortly after King Chairacha's second expedition and was the 19th King of Lan Na. He only remained in Chiang Mai until 1550 and returned to Luang Prabang to claim the throne of Lan Chang (Lan Xiang) on the sudden death of his father, King Potisarat. King Setthathirat removed from Chiang Mai the Emerald Buddha, the Crystal Buddha of Lamphun, the Phra Singh, and other particularly sacred images. None of them was returned except the Phra Singh. King Setthathirat announced his intention to remain at Luang Prabang. The Chieng Mai nobility offered the throne to Prince Mekuti of Mueang Nai to become King of Lan Na Thai with the title of Phra Mekutawisutthiwong.





Wat Wisunarat in Luang Prabang was established in 1513 CE and named after King Visoun (Wisunarat) (reign 1501-1520) of Lan Chang (Lan Xang). It is the oldest Buddhist temple in town and has served as the city’s Museum of Religious Arts. The temple features an unusually shaped stupa designed by the wife of King Wisunarat, resembling a lotus flower and often referred to as the ‘watermelon stupa’. Wat Wisunarat was home to the revered standing Buddha image Phra Bang from 1507 to 1715, before the image was relocated to the Royal Palace Museum.



1548 - The Princess Regent Thao Si Sudachan fell in love with the guard of the Phiman Rataya Hall named Phan But Sri Thep. She managed to appoint him first as Khun Chinnarat and later as Khun Worawongsa, entrusting him with the duty of enlisting the troops as certain disturbances occurred in the northern provinces of the Kingdom and enabling him to designate troops and officers favourable to him. Phraya Maha Sena (Minister of Defence), who sensed the intrigue, was made away with, as many others who could oppose Worawongsa's rise. As a result of the conspiracy, the Princess Regent was pregnant and gave birth to a daughter. Having cleared her Council of all opponents, the Princess Regent obtained the consent to appoint Khun Worawongsa as Regent so that he could administer the kingdom's affairs during the minority of King Yot Fa. All the governors of the seven northern provinces were recalled and replaced by loyals to the new Regent. In early November 1548, King Yot Fa died at the age of thirteen years. The exact cause of his death is not known. Following the Luang Prasoet Chronicle, he got into an accident. The later written Royal chronicles of Ayutthaya state that he was executed at the Khok Phraya Monastery. The contemporary Portuguese traveller Pinto wrote the young king was poisoned. [Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya, Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 23 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum, Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong & Royal Autograph. / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 109-110.]



Reign of (usurper) King Worawongsa (1548)


1549 - Khun Phirenthorathep, a descendant from the House of Sukhothai, disagreed with the usurpation of the throne by King Worawongsa. Phiren held a secret meeting with some trustees being, Khun Inthorathep, Mun Ratchasena, and Luang Si Yot and decided to put Prince Thianracha on the throne. They consulted an oracle at the recitation hall of Pa Kaeo Monastery (present Wat Yai Chai Mongkhon), which turned out in favour of Thianracha, ordained at the Racha Praditdsathan Monastery. Early January 1549, Worawongsa announced his intention to proceed by boat to the Elephant Kraal on 13 January to see a large elephant caught. Phiren initiated the Governors of Sawankhalok and Phijai into his plan. The Royal barge of Khun Worawongsa and Queen Sri Sudachan was intercepted in a narrow creek of the Ban Pla Mo Canal, leading to the kraal. The usurper King and his Queen were dragged ashore and beheaded, together with their infant daughter. Their bodies were impaled near the ambush at Wat Raeng. Mun Rachasenha shot the pseudo-Uparat, Nai Chan, near the Sua Landing (Tha Sua) while riding to the kraal on an elephant. The little Prince Sri Sin, son of King Chairacha, who had accompanied his mother, was given into the keeping of Prince Thianracha.[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 24 & 25 / Source: Phan Canthanumat, British Museum, Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong & Royal Autograph. / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 111-2.]


1549 - Phiren and his men, after killing the usurper King Worawongsa, re-entered the City of Ayutthaya to secure the Royal Palace. Prince Thienracha was invited to leave the monkhood. He was brought forth in procession from the Rachapraditsathan monastery towards the Royal Palace by the Chai Suphannahong Royal barge and a vast flotilla. He was crowned as King of Siam on 19 January 1549 (1) with the title of Maha Chakkraphat. King Chakkraphat adopted the same day Prince Si Sin, son of Chairacha King (r. 1534-1547). The King's first act on attaining the throne was to shower unprecedented honours and rewards on those who had brought him into position. Phiren was conferred the title of Somdet Maha Thammaracha, given the right to issue royal commands and put in the position of Governor of Phitsanulok. King Chakkraphat bestowed his eldest daughter's hand, Princess Sawatdirat (2), in marriage to Phiren and gave her the royal title of Princess Wisut Kasattri (3). Inthorathep was made Chao Phraya Si Thammasokkarat and put in the position of Governor of Nakhon Si Thammarat Luang Si Yot was made Chao Phraya Maha Senabodi, while Mun Ratchasaneha was made Chao Phraya Maha Thep. (1) Date taken from Pinto (The Travels, Voyages, and Adventures of Ferdinand Mendez Pinto). (2) Also a daughter of Queen Suriyothai. (3) The position formerly held by the Chief Queen of Phitsanulok.[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 25 / 27 Source: Phan Canthanumat, British Museum, Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong & Royal Autograph. / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 112.]


Reign of King Chakkraphat (1548-1569)


1548/9 - Burma invades Ayutthaya.


1549 - Cambodia invades Ayutthaya.


1551 - War with Lovek (Cambodia).


1556 - War with Lovek (Cambodia).


1557 - Building of Wichai Prasit Fortress at the entrance of Khlong Bangkok Yai at Thonburi's south-eastern corner. [Reference: The Chao Phya, River in Transition - Steve Van Beeck (1995) - page 44.]


1563 - Foundation of Thonburi, a key settlement by the seventeenth century. It was called Thonburi Si Maha Samut (Oceanic City of Great Wealth) by the Siamese. Thonburi was a customs port but also had strategic military importance. [Reference: The Chao Phya, River in Transition - Steve Van Beeck (1995) - page 41.]


1563 - Evidence suggests that Patani engaged in a tributary relationship with Ayutthaya since early 1563. As long as a strong ruler existed in Ayutthaya, Patani did not resist paying tribute to its northern neighbour in the form of the 'Bunga mas dan Perak, gold and silver flowers. [Ref: Bradley, Francis R. - Moral Order in a Time of Damnation: The "Hikayat Patani" in Historical Context - Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol 40, No 2 (Jun.,2009), pp 267-293 - Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Department of History, National University of Singapore.]


1563/4 - Burma invades Ayutthaya.


1564 - In 1564, when a Burmese army moved to attack Ayutthaya, King Chakkraphat requested assistance from Patani, one of the obligations a powerful mandala might expect of its vassals in return for the protection it offered. However, as the Ayutthaya army suffered defeat against its enemy, Patani turned and occupied the city for a brief period, supported by a fleet of 200 ships, before the returning army managed to expel Patani’s force. Patani's Sultan Mudhaffar Syah died in the fighting but entrusted rule to his brother Sultan Manzur Syah who he compelled to return by ship to Patani. In the Hikayat Patani, this episode is only remembered as an attack on Siam. [Reference: Bradley, Francis R. - Moral Order in a Time of Damnation: The "Hikayat Patani" in Historical Context - Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol 40, No 2 (Jun. 2009), pp 267-293 - Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Department of History, National University of Singapore.]


1564 - Burma invades Lan Chang. 1568/9 - Burma invades Ayutthaya. First fall of Ayutthaya. 1569 - Death of King Chakkraphat (r. 1548-1569). Enthronement of King Mahin (r. 1569). [Ref: Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya]





The Shwe Dagon is a great Buddhist temple complex on a hill (51 metres) in Yangon (formerly known as Rangoon). The pagoda is a solid brick stupa wholly covered with gold. It rises 99 metres on top of the hill above the city. The temple is said to be established more than 2500 years ago.



Reign of King Mahin (1569)

2 Aug 1569 - First fall of Ayutthaya.

1569 - Death of King Mahin (r. 1569). Enthronement of King Maha Thammaracha, also known as King Phra Sri Sanphet (reign 1569-1590). [Ref: Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya]


Reign of King Maha Thammaracha (1569-1590)

1570 - Chronicle evidence mentions Wiang Khuk was occupied by the armies of Burma (Hongsawadi) in their victorious campaign against Lan Chang in 1570. [Ref: Sila Viravong. History of Laos (pp. 51, 74. 82, 102] M. G. Maspero. (1940). ‘Le Royaume de Vieng-Chan’. Revue Indochinoise, 1, 500 Vientiane: Transformations of a Lao Landscape - Marc Askew, Colin Long, William Logan, Routledge, (2006)]

1580 - Cambodian attack on Nakhon Ratchasima [Ref: Vickery - Review of The Short History of the Kings of Siam - JSS 64 2 Van Vliet (1640) - The Short History of the Kings of Siam The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) / Source: Luang Prasoet.]

1590 - Death of Maha Thammaracha (reign 1569-1590). Enthronement of King Naresuan (r. 1590-1605). [Ref: Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya]


Reign of King Naresuan (1590-1605)

1593/4 - Invasion of Lovek (Cambodia) by Ayutthaya in the reign of King Thammaracha. Phraya Chakri and Phraya Kalahom led the Siamese forces, followed by Prince Naresuan in the rear guard. The Cambodian king escaped to Laos while his brother was captured and taken to Ayutthaya [Ref: Van Vliet, Jeremias. The Short History of the Kings of Siam. Bangkok: The Siam Society, 1975 (Translated by David Wyatt) Vickery - Review of The Short History of the Kings of Siam - JSS 64 2]

1595 – An Embassy was sent by the Portuguese Captain of Malacca, D. Francisco de Silva de Menezes, to request the King of Siam to release the captives taken during his war with Lovek in 1594. The embassy left Malacca on 8 May 1595 and returned after eight months in 1596. [Ref: Embassies and Surrogates: case-study of a Malacca Embassy to Siam in 1595 - Teotonio R. De Souza (1989)]





Lovek became the capital of Cambodia after the attack of Angkor by the Siamese king Borommaracha II in 1431. After the destruction of Angkor, Lovek was chosen as the new capital because of its more readily defensible terrain, located halfway between Phnom Penh and the lower end of the Tonle Sap. King Ang Chan (reign 1516–66) chose Lovek as his official capital and established his palace there in 1553. Lovek’s importance waned, and in 1618 a new capital was established at Oudong by King Chey Chetta II.