HISTORICAL EVENTS - 1650 CE





Reign of King Prasat Thong (1629-1656) (Continued)


After 1650, as Asian and European merchants scaled back their trade with Patani, the sultanate experienced a period of social crisis. The Dutch and English withdrew their factories at Patani in the early 1620s both merchant companies continued to trade with Patani until the 1640s when Iocal rebellions began to erode interest in the Patani market. The Dutch carried on a sporadic pepper trade with Patani, a major player in the South China Sea trading network with ties to southern China, Japan, Sulawesi, Borneo, Java, and Sumatra. [Reference: Bradley, Francis R. - Moral Order in a Time of Damnation: The "Hikayat Patani" in Historical Context - Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol 40, No 2 (Jun. 2009), pp 267-293 - Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Department of History, National University of Singapore.]


1655 - The Sicilian Jesuit Fr. Tommaso Valguarnera (1608-1677) arrives in Ayutthaya and remains here until 1670. He built a residence and a church in the Portuguese settlement and arranged the establishment of the "Collegio San Salvador". He was also an architect and was asked by King Narai to rebuild the walls of Ayutthaya. He was named Visitor of the Province of Japan and China (1670-1674). He returned to Siam in 1675 and again was occupied with rebuilding the walls of Ayutthaya. He died in Ayutthaya in 1677. [Cerruti, Pietro - The Jesuits in Thailand - Part I, 1607-1767.]


1656 - King Narai seizes the Siamese throne from his uncle, King Suthammaracha. The latter is executed at Wat Khok Phraya. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002) Michael Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686.]



Reign of King Narai (1656 - 1688)


1661 - The Dutch became involved in a dispute with the Siamese King over the capture by the Dutch flyboat ‘Het Rode Hert’ of a ship flying the Portuguese colours in the Gulf of Tonkin. The cargo on board the vessel belonged to the King, who claimed an indemnity for the loss sustained against the Dutch East India Company of Fl. 84,000. [Ref: Giles, Francis H. - Analysis of Van Vliet's Account of Siam - Part 7 - JSS 30 3b.]


1662 - Migration from Talaing (Mon) from Martaban. Chinese harassment of Burma started from 1648 onward. Ten years later, with the Chinese still hanging around, agricultural activities slowed down, and a rice shortage occurred. Lower Burma became disturbed. In 1661, the Prince of Prome raised an insurrection and was crowned King Maha Pawara Dhamma Raja. In 1662, the Governor of Martaban (1) ordered a force of 3000 men out of his municipalities to help the King of Burma defend Ava and expel the Chinese. A large number of Mon escaped the force and returned to Martaban. The Governor arrested the Mon who fled back, put them in cages and threatened to burn them to death. Five thousand Mon advanced on Martaban, burned down the town and took the Governor in custody. The Talaing insurgents could hold the town for a while but realised they would not escape the wrath of the King of Ava. The Talaings assembled their families and, with more than 10.000 people, started their flight to Siam toward the Three Pagoda Pass. A front guard advanced to Kanchanaburi to give an account of the occurrences to King Narai. The King sent some thousand Mon troops to meet them and to guide the refugees to Kanchanaburi. The Mon nobles were received for an audience at the court, and arrangements were made to harbour the families in the vicinity of Samkhok, partly near Khlong Khu Cham, in the vicinity of Wat Tha Hoi and partly in the neighbourhood of the Monastery of the Card Slap [not determined]. A Burmese force was sent down and reoccupied Martaban. [References: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 256-258 / Source: Phan Canthanumat.]


1662 - Arrival of the first French Missionaries in Ayutthaya under Lambert de La Motte, Bishop of Berithus. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 (1996) Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002).]


1663 - Armed Chinese besieged the Dutch factory, but the acting resident, Enoch Poolvoet, under instructions from the Governor General in Batavia, managed to escape with all his men and goods. [Ref: Giles, Francis H. - Analysis of Van Vliet’s Account of Siam - Part 7 - JSS 30 3b.]


1663 - Dutch blockade of the Chao Phraya River after the announcement the previous year of a royal monopoly on Siamese exports. [Michael Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686 and Smithies, Michael (1996) - The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688.]


1664 - Msgr. Pallu arrives in Ayutthaya. He left Ayutthaya for Europe in 1665. [Ref: Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686.]





Wat Tha Hoi, or the Monastery of the Landing of the Shellfish, was located off the city island in the southern area, in the Samphao Lom Sub-district. The remains of the monastery are situated East of Khlong Khu Cham, opposite Wat Tawet. In situ is a restored ruin consisting of several brick foundations of walls and monastic structures and some bases of small chedi on the southern side of the premises. The site was excavated in 2015.



1664 - Creation of the Compagnie des Indes Orientales (French East India Company), a commercial enterprise founded in 1664 by Jean-Baptiste Colbert to compete with the English and Dutch East India companies in the East Indies. [Ref: Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686.]


1664 - King Narai of Ayutthaya (reign 1656-1688) sent a ship to Java to bring the entourage of a Makassar Prince (already increased to 60 families) to Siam. He generously granted the prince asylum and designated him a location south of Ayutthaya to settle down the area became known as the Makassar Camp.


22 Aug 1664 - Siamese ambassadors were sent to Batavia. The Governor General appointed Commissary Pieter de Bitter to proceed to Ayutthaya as the Dutch representative to settle for the closure of the VOC trading post in Ayutthaya in 1663. The settlement was most favourable to the Dutch. On the 22nd of August 1664, a treaty was signed between Siam and Holland under which the Dutch gained many privileges, including extra-territorial rights for the Company's residents. [Ref: Giles, Francis H. - Analysis of Van Vliet’s Account of Siam - Part 7 - JSS 30 3b.]


1667 - First mention of diplomatic relations in a letter from Lambert de la Motte to Pallu. [Ref: Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686.]


1668 - In 1668, Siam sent a commercial embassy to Persia under the influence of the Persian merchant Aqa Muhammad Astarabadi, minister at the Siamese Court. [Ref: Pombejra, Dhiravat na. - Ayutthaya at the end of the seventeenth century: was there a shift to isolation? -pp. 250-272 in Reid (éd.), 1993.]


14 Nov 1668 - Clause added to the treaty between the Dutch VOC and Siam on 14 November 1668, giving the VOC the sole right to buy and export all the tin of the country except for such quantities as the king would require for himself. [Ref: Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686 Giles, Francis H. - Analysis of Van Vliet’s Account of Siam - Part 7 - JSS 30 3b.]


1669 - Pope Clement IX sends a letter in Latin to King Narai of Ayutthaya. [Ref: Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686.]


1670 - Louis XIV signs a letter to King Narai of Ayutthaya. [Ref: Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686.]


1670 - In 1670-71, war erupted between Patani and Singora (Songkhla) despite efforts by the sultan of Kedah to mediate a peace accord. Patani's advantage over Singora seems to have been its larger army, for an English observer stated that the soldiers were more experienced using firearms, including muskets and cannons. [Reference: Bradley, Francis R. - Moral Order in a Time of Damnation: The "Hikayat Patani" in Historical Context - Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol 40, No 2 (Jun. 2009), pp 267-293 - Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Department of History, National University of Singapore.]





The Makassar Camp on Leupe 267 (De geweezen Campo off den vermoorde macassare) - Kaart van de Rivier van Siam, van de Zee tot aan de Stad Siam ofte Judea - unknown Dutch map maker.



1673 - King Narai of Ayutthaya receives in solemn audience the letters of Pope Clement IX. [Ref: Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686.]


1673 - Louis Laneau made Bishop of Metellopolis and apostolic vicar in Siam. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002).]


1673 - Patani turned against Ayutthaya once again, prompting King Narai to send an Ayutthaya army to bring Patani back under control, which they managed to do in January 1674. In the fighting, the Patani elite was eliminated, and Raja Mansur was taken captive and brought to Ayutthaya. [Reference: Montesano, Michael John and Jory, Patrick (2008) - Thai South and Malay North: Ethnic Interactions on a Plural Peninsula - NUS Press.]


1675 - The French East India Company and the Phra Klang of Siam sign a commercial treaty. [Ref: Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686.]


In 1676, Kedah refused to pay tribute, and the following year, Patani and Singora (Songkhla) coordinated a rebellion against Ayutthaya. Patani had improved its military with the importation of a large number of English firearms, which they received via Kedah. Furthermore, Siam suspected Patani and Johor to be planning an attack on Ligor (Nakhon Si Thammarat) with 200 ships. In 1678, Ayutthaya sent an army south, but it experienced a number of initial setbacks. Sometime before February 1679, the Siamese governor of Phatthalung was poisoned, probably by an internal anti-Ayutthaya faction, for the city then joined the other polities in their war against Ayutthaya. Only by an alliance with Portuguese maritime forces, which blockaded Singora and Dutch ships, which bolstered the attack on Patani, were Siamese armies able to secure victory. Ayutthaya even ordered Dutch artillerists to raze Patani to the ground if they managed to capture the city. However, a shortage of resources compelled the Siamese, Portuguese and Dutch forces to concentrate more fully on Singora. Though many people died in the fighting, rampant starvation throughout the peninsula resulted in the greatest number of casualties because of bad harvests, supply shortages and coastal blockades. No details survive to tell how the various warring groups established peace, but tribute again appeared in Ayutthaya from Patani in November 1680. [Reference: Bradley, Francis R. - Moral Order in a Time of Damnation: The "Hikayat Patani" in Historical Context - Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol 40, No 2 (June 2009), pp 267-293 - Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Department of History, National University of Singapore.]


1678 - (Circa) Arrival of Phaulkon in Siam. [Ref: Forbin, Count Claude (de) - The Siamese Memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685–1688. Introduced and edited by Michael Smithies. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1996.]


1680 - Despite this defeat, Patani and Songkhla tried to resist again in 1677-1678, but in November 1680, they were again forced to submit and send the 'Bunga mas' to Ayuthaya. After it paid tribute in 1680, there was no further record of Pattani's relations with the Thai state until 1769-1770, during the early Thonburi period. This year, King Taksin sent an army to crush a rebellion started by the principality of Nakhon Si Thammarat, which had declared its independence following the fall of Ayuthaya in 1767. [Reference: Bradley, Francis R. - Moral Order in a Time of Damnation: The "Hikayat Patani" in Historical Context - Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol 40, No 2 (Jun. 2009), pp 267-293 - Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Department of History, National University of Singapore.]


1680 - The ‘Vautour’, the first French ship to arrive in Siam and leaves later with the first Siamese embassy for France (establishment of commercial relations). The embassy to Louis XIV and the pope was lost in the shipwreck of the ‘Soleil d'Orient,’ off Madagascar, towards the end of 1681, with no survivors. On board was the Siamese ambassador Phraya Pipat Kosa and his deputies, Luang Sri Wisan and Khun Nakhon Wichai. [Ref: Smithies, Michael (1999) - A Siamese Embassy lost in Africa 1686 - page 1 and Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686.]


1680 - The godown of the Compagnie des Indes Orientales in Siam was established in 1680, and Andre Deslandes-Boureau obtained a favourable trading treaty for the French. Trade was carried on between Ayudhya, Pondicherry and Surat. But the French Minister Louvois killed the India trade by obtaining a prohibition on the import of printed cloth from the Indies. The trade with Siam then increased in importance until it came to a halt in 1688. [Ref: Forbin, Claude (de), Count - The Siamese Memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685–1688. Introduced and edited by Michael Smithies. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1996. Smithies, Michael - Robert Challe and Siam - Journal of the Siam Society - Volume 81.1 (1993).]


1681 - The Siamese ambassadors board the ‘Soleil d’Orient’ at Banten, which sinks off Madagascar at the end of the year. [Ref: Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686.]





Model of the Soleil d'Orient exhibited at the Compagnie des Indes Museum in Port-Louis. -Wikipedia. The Soleil d´Orient was a vessel of the French East India Company, 1000 tons. The ship, badly leaking, had been put into Fort Dauphin [Madagascar] in November 1681. The ship's occupants had befriended the locals and set about repairing their vessel. When the leak was plugged, the Soleil d'Orient was ready to leave Madagascar. Surprised by a cyclone, she weighed anchor in a great hurry but broke up on the rocky coast somewhere northeast of Itapere [Pointe Itapere - Madagascar] with all hands lost.



1682 - A French priest at the court of Ayutthaya a reported that the king of Champa had submitted voluntarily to the king of Siam. While no other information is available, the event suggests an attempt by the Chams to forge an alliance with Siam with the aim of resisting the Nguyen. [Ref: Father Duchesne to Directors of the Seminary in Paris, 13 November 1682, AMEP: Siam, Vol. 878, f. 202. in Vietnam-Champa Relations and the Malay-Islam Regional Network in the 17th–19th Centuries - Danny Wong Tze Ken.]


2 May 1682 - Phaulkon abjures Anglicanism under the influence of the Jesuits Fr. Antoine Thomas from Namur, and Fr. Jean-Baptiste Maldonado, from Mons. He then married a few days later Maria Guyomar de Pinha, a Catholic of mixed Japanese-Portuguese·Bengali extraction, in the San Paolo Jesuit Church in the Portuguese quarter of Ayutthaya. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002).]


1683 - Bishop Lambert de la Motte informs King Narai of the shipwreck of the ‘Soleil d’Orient’ the king decides to send two envoys to enquire about the fate of his embassy. [Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686.]


1683 - (Circa) Constantine Phaulkon enters the service of King Narai as Phra Klang, the minister of foreign affairs and trade, without taking the title. [Ref: The Siamese Memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 - Michael Smithies (1996) A Siamese Embassy Lost in Africa 1686 - Michael Smithies (1999) - page 1.]


Nov 1683 - King Narai sends two Siamese envoys, Khun Pichai Walit and Khun Pichit Maitri, to enquire about the fate of his ambassadors, shepherded by Fr. Benigne Vachet (1642-1720). Arrival in France of the two Siamese envoys in October 1684. They were presented to King Louis XIV in Versailles on 27 November 1684. [Ref: Forbin, Claude (de), Count - The Siamese Memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685–1688. Introduced and edited by Michael Smithies. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1996.]


Nov 1684 - The Siamese envoys, Khun Pichai Walit and Khun Pichit Maitri, envoys meet King Louis XIV, who grants a private audience to the missionary interpreter Fr. Benigne Vachet, who sows the idea of the possibility of Narai's conversion. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002).]


1684 - The French East India Company withdraws from Ayutthaya. [Ref: Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686.]
1685 - A Persian Embassy of King Sulaiman arrived in 1685 and resided in Siam until 1687.


3 March 1685 - The First French Embassy of the Chevalier de Chaumont and the Abbé Choisy leaves Brest on the ‘Oiseau’ and the ‘Maligne’. They are accompanied by six Jesuits, including Tachard, bound for China (Fathers de Fontaney, Bouvet, Gerbillon and Visdelou). [Ref: Forbin, Claude (de), Count - The Siamese Memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685–1688. Introduced and edited by Michael Smithies. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1996.]


23 Sep 1685 - Arrival of the French Embassy in Siam. [Ref: Forbin, Claude (de), Count - The Siamese Memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685–1688. Introduced and edited by Michael Smithies. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1996.]





The ruins of the Jesuit Church of San Paolo are not discovered yet. Still, they should be situated somewhere within the Portuguese settlement, off the city island in the southern area at present Samphao Lom Sub-district. Phraya Boran Rachathanin indicated on his map drafted in 1926, "Wat Portukes Yesuwid Nikai" (Monastery of the Portuguese Jesuit Sect) along the western bank of the Chao Phraya River.



18 Oct 1685 - Solemn Audience of the first French Embassy at Ayutthaya. [Ref: Forbin, Claude (de), Count - The Siamese Memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685–1688. Introduced and edited by Michael Smithies. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1996.]


10 Dec 1685 - Claude Forbin invested Admiral, General of The King of Siam's Armies and Governor of Bangkok. [Ref: Forbin, Claude (de), Count - The Siamese Memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685–1688. Introduced and edited by Michael Smithies. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1996.]


12 Dec 1685 - Farewell audience of the first French Embassy at Lopburi on 12 December 1685. [Ref: Forbin, Claude (de), Count - The Siamese Memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685–1688. Introduced and edited by Michael Smithies. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1996.]


22 Dec 1685 - The French Embassy departs for France, leaving Claude de Forbin and the engineer de La Mare to serve King Narai. The French are accompanied by a Siamese embassy to France led by Kosa Pan. The Jesuit Tachard received secret instructions from Phaulkon. [Ref: Forbin, Claude (de), Count - The Siamese Memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685–1688. Introduced and edited by Michael Smithies. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1996 Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002).]


18 June 1686 - Return to Brest of the French embassy, together with three Siamese ambassadors to Louis XIV. [Ref: Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686.]


2 July 1686 - Fathers de Fontaney, Bouvet, Gerbillon and Visdelou leave Ayutthaya for Macao and meet Forbin in Bangkok. [Ref: Forbin, Claude (de), Count - The Siamese Memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685–1688. Introduced and edited by Michael Smithies. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1996.]


15 Aug 1686 - c. A plot of the Makassars in Ayutthaya was discovered. 200 Makassars gave themselves up in Ayutthaya. Fifty-three escaped on a galley via the river. [Ref: Forbin, Claude (de), Count - The Siamese Memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685–1688. Introduced and edited by Michael Smithies. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1996.]


27 Aug 1686 - Phaulcon ordered Claude de Forbin to stop a Makassarese ship at Bangkok, resulting in the slaughter of 360 Siamese troops. [Ref: Forbin, Claude (de), Count - The Siamese Memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685–1688. Introduced and edited by Michael Smithies. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1996.]


Aug 1686 - Phaulkon ordered Claude de Forbin to arrest Captain Lake on his ship, the ‘Prudent Mary’. [Ref: Forbin, Claude (de), Count - The Siamese Memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685–1688. Introduced and edited by Michael Smithies. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1996.]


Sep 1686 - Solemn audience of the Siamese embassy at Versailles. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002).]





Siamese embassy to Louis XIV led by Kosa Pan in 1686, by Nicolas Larmessin – Wikipedia.



12 Sep 1686 - Fathers de Fontaney, Bouvet, Gerbillon and Visdelou meet Claude de Forbin in Bangkok after being shipwrecked off Cambodia. [Ref: Forbin, Claude (de), Count - The Siamese Memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685–1688. Introduced and edited by Michael Smithies. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1996.]


14 Sep 1686 - Second attack on the Macassar camp in Ayutthaya. The two young Makassar princes were sent to France with a ship of the East India Company after the revolt of the Makassars. [Ref: Forbin, Claude (de), Count - The Siamese Memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685–1688. Introduced and edited by Michael Smithies. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1996.]


Dec 1686 - Claude de Forbin leaves Siam on the French East Indian Company ship ‘Saint-Louis'. [Ref: Forbin, Claude (de), Count - The Siamese Memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685–1688. Introduced and edited by Michael Smithies. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1996.]


22 January 1687 - de Seignelay signs a letter to Phaulkon telling him Father Tachard is to be trusted entirely. [Michael Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686.]


Jan 1687 - Farewell audience of the Siamese embassy in France. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002).]


1 Mar 1687 - Second French Embassy under Simon de La Loubère (1643-1729) and Claude Céberet du Boullay (1647-1702) leaves Brest for Siam, accompanied by the returning Siamese embassy. On board is an expeditionary force led by General Desfarges with secret instructions to seize Bangkok and Mergui if they were not handed over voluntarily. Tachard dealt directly with Phaulcon, passing over the heads of the envoys extraordinarily and making their mission impossible. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 (1996) Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002).]


17 Jun 1687 - Fathers de Fontaney, Bouvet, Gerbillon and Visdelou leave Ayutthaya for Peking. They arrive in Peking on 8 July 1688. [Ref: The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 - Michael Smithies (1996).]


25-26 July 1687 - Massacre of the English at Mergui. Burnaby, the English Governor appointed by Phaulkon, lost his life along with many others, and the English harbour master Samuel White only escaped with his. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 (1996) Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002) - page 76.]


Aug 1687 - Mergui was placed under the command of the French Lieutenant Beauregard, part of the First French Embassy. Siam declared war on the English East-Indian Company after a large number of jewels was ordered by Elihu Yale (1648-1721), acting President of the Council in Madras, and not paid for. [Ref: The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 - Michael Smithies (1996).]


18 Sep 1687 - French troops under General Desfarges disembark in Bangkok. [Ref: The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 - Michael Smithies (1996).]





Guy Tachard (Marthon 1651 - Chandernagor 1712), also known as Le Père Tachard, was a French Jesuit missionary and mathematician. He was sent on two French embassies to the Kingdom of Siam by Louis XIV. Guy Tachard's "A Relation of the Voyage to Siam" was initially published in 1688. Orchid Press (Bangkok) reprinted the old book under its "Iteneraria Asiatica", a series of reprints of books containing first-hand descriptions and narratives by travellers in Asia.



26 Sep 1687 - Second French Embassy under Simon de La Loubère and Claude Céberet du Boullay (1647-1702) arrives in Siam with the ship ‘L' Oiseau’. (Smithies states 6 Oct in his introduction). [Ref: The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 - Michael Smithies (1996).]


6 Oct 1687 - Arrival of the French ships ‘Gaillard’, ‘Loire’, and ‘Dromodaire’. [Ref: Dirk van der Cruysse, Dirk - Siam & the West 1500-1700.] 2 Nov 1687 - Solemn Audience of the second French Embassy at Ayutthaya. [Ref: The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 - Michael Smithies (1996).]


Nov 1687 - Phaulkon's wife, Marie Guyomar de Pinha, becomes a countess of France. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002) - page 74.]


End Nov 1687 – Arrival of the ‘Normande’, the last ship of the French Squadron. The ‘Normande’ was separated from the squadron by a storm soon after leaving the Cape. Of 636 soldiers and officers who had left Brest, only 492 reached Siam. The physical condition of the survivors was so poor that, with the help of the climate, many more died in the weeks which followed the disembarkation. [Ref: Dirk van der Cruysse, Dirk - Siam & the West 1500-1700.]


Dec 1687 - Tachard made an ambassador of King Narai to Louis XIV and the Pope. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002).]


13 Dec 1687 - Claude Céberet du Boullay (1647-1702), a director of the French East India Company and part of the Second French Embassy, was charged with obtaining a new commercial treaty with Siam. The latter was concluded in the first part of December, and Céberet left Ayutthaya for Mergui. [Ref: The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 - Michael Smithies (1996).]


30 Dec 1687 - Claude de Forbin meets Claude Céberet du Boullay (1647-1702) in Tenasserim. [Ref: The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 - Michael Smithies (1996)]


3 Jan 1688 - Céberet and de Forbin leave Mergui on board the ‘President’ for Pondichery. [Ref: The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 - Michael Smithies (1996) - page 155.]


3 Jan 1688 - The French envoy Simon de La Loubère leaves Siam on the worst of terms with Phaulkon. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 (Chiang Mai, Silkworm Books, 1996) Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002).]





Chevalier Claude de Forbin in the costume of a grand admiral of Siam. Memoirs of Forbin published in Amsterdam in 1729.



17 Feb 1688 - Major Du Bruant leaves Bangkok to take possession of Mergui. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002).]


2 Feb 1688 - Céberet and de Forbin leave Pondicherry on board the ‘Oiseau’ for France. [Ref: The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 - Michael Smithies (1996).]


Feb 1688 - King Narai fell seriously ill with dropsy in February 1688. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002).]


27 Mar 1688 - Major Du Bruant arrives in Mergui with three companies numbering ninety men. Mergui was placed under the control of du Bruant. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 (1996) Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002) - page 76.]


31 Mar 1688 - In Lopburi, the French General Desfarges discusses ways of putting down Petracha's plot with Phaulkon. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002).]


15 Apr 1688 - The French General Desfarges disobeys orders from Phaulkon to go to his aid in Lopburi. He was persuaded in Ayutthaya by Véret and the Abbé de Lionne to abandon Phaulkon and remain in his fort in Bangkok. [Ref: The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 - Michael Smithies (1996) - page 179.]


10 May 1688 - The daughter of King Narai, Princess Queen Yothathep, was made regent by her father on 10 May 1688 in the event of his death. [Smithies, Michael - Robert Challe And Siam - Journal of the Siam Society - Volume 81.1 (1993).]


18 May 1688 - Coup d' Etat of Ok-Phra Petracha in Lopburi. King Narai was a prisoner in his own palace from 18 May until his death in July. Phaulkon was arrested and tortured until his death on 5 June in Thale Chup Son in Lopburi. [Ref: The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 - Michael Smithies (1996) - page 179.]

20 May 1688 - Pi, Phra Pi or Mom Pi, favourite of King Narai and son of the courtier Ok-Khun Kraisitthisek, a former page, was adopted by King Narai and was expected to marry his daughter Yothathep. The latter refused him because of his low birth. Pi was beheaded on the orders of Ok-Phra Petracha on 20 May 1688. (Some sources state 28 or 29 May 1688) [Ref: Forbin, Claude (de), Count - The Siamese Memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688. Introduced and edited by Michael Smithies. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1996 Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002) - page 63.]


2 June 1688 - The French General Desfarges was summoned to Lopburi on 25 May by Ok-Phra Petracha. Arriving on 2 June, he said nothing to save Phaulkon, and Petracha assumed that the French had abandoned him. [Ref: The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 - Michael Smithies (1996).]





A contemporary drawing of Constantine Phaulkon - 17th century.



5 June 1688 - Phaulkon put to death. Phaulkon was made to carry Mom Pi‘s decapitated head around his neck he was horribly tortured, declared guilty of lèse-majesté and high treason, and condemned to death. The confessor he requested was refused. A ‘painted arm' "struck him with the reverse of his sabre which split him down the middle of his body. He fell dying on his face with a great sigh. To finish him off, his head was sliced with several blows" (Le Blanc, Memoires secrets de ce qui c’est passé a Siam dans les années 1687 et 1688, in the Jesuit archives in Rome). [Ref: The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 - Michael Smithies (1996) - page 180.]


6 June 1688 - Siege of Bangkok. The French General Desfarges returns from Lopburi, leaving his two sons as hostages in Lopburi. Realizing the intention of the Siamese, he decided the defence of his troops. One of the two forts occupied was abandoned as he had no more than 200 troops and one fort was more easily to be defended. All the ammunition and stores were pulled out, all the canons therein were spiked, and all the nearby villages pillaged and burnt. There was no time to raze the fort, but this was resolved by mining the abandoned fort with cannon shots. The Siamese started the siege of the French fortress and refitted the abandoned fort with forty cannons. Twelve other small forts were constructed around the French fortress, each of which had seven, eight or ten cannons. The abandoned fort had a lookout which dominated the stronghold of the French and fired continual cannon shots. The French reduced it quickly to ruins hitting it with two batteries of thirty cannons. The Siamese assembled to launch an assault but withdrew more quickly than they came after the French discharged their muskets. The siege took four months, in which only cannons were fired, which did not greatly trouble the French fort. The French withdrew from Bangkok on 2 November. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002) - page 70-1.]


26 June 1688 - Siamese attack of 12000 men under the Governor of Tenasserim on Mergui the latter under the command of the French Major du Bruant. One hundred Siamese die on the assault of the French entrenchment. On 27 June there was a second attack in which around 200 Siamese were killed. On 28 June, du Bruant retreats from his entrenchment and embarks on the Siamese frigate ‘Mergui’ and succeeds in leaving the harbour of Mergui, losing some of his men. (Four other accounts state the first attack occurred on 24 June) He arrived with his remaining troops in Pondicherry on 15 January 1689. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002) - page 78-9, 81.]


9 July 1688 - Ok-Phra Petracha eliminated King Narai's half-brothers Chao Fa Apaithot and Chao Fa Noi. De La Touche states that there were killed in an ambush on the way from Ayutthaya to Lopburi. Desfarges and an anonymous writer state that they have been beaten to death with sandalwood at a certain temple in Thale Chupson at Lopburi, the traditional way of disposing of princes of the blood. (The date is following Desfarges, Vollant de Verquains has 19 July, Le Blanc has 29 July, and Van der Cruysse 9 July) [Ref: Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002) - page 46 & 64.]


10 July 1688 - Death of King Narai at Lopburi on 10 or 11 July 1688. Narai died of old age and asthma, though said by some to have been poisoned. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 (1996) - page 181 Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002) - page 85.]


18 July 1688 - The French ship 'Oiseau' arrives in Brest. [Ref: The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 - Michael Smithies (1996).]


29 July 1688 - The first frigate under French command sent out to chase pirates returns to Ban Chao Phraya. [Le Blanc, Marcel (1692) - Histoire de la Revolution du Roiaume de Siam, Tome II - Horace Molin. Lyon - page 4.]





The Kraison Siharat Hall, or Phra Thinang Yen, is located on an island in a dried-up lake, Thale Chupson, formerly supplying drinking water to Lop Buri residents. This hall was a residence of King Narai and was used by the Jesuits and Louis XIV's envoys to witness a lunar eclipse on 11 December 1685 CE.



Reign of King Phetracha (1688-1703)


Rebellions in Nakhon Sri Thammarat and Nakhon Ratchasima.


1 Aug 1688 - Ok-Phra Petracha declares himself king and was crowned on 1 August 1688. King Narai's daughter Princess Queen Yothathep was forced to become one of Petracha' s wives. [Smithies, Michael - Robert Challe and Siam - Journal of the Siam Society - Volume 81.1 (1993).]


2 Aug 1688 - The second frigate under the command of French Capt Sainte Marie sent out to chase pirates returns to Ban Chao Phraya. [Le Blanc, Marcel (1692) - Histoire de la Revolution du Roiaume de Siam, Tome II - Horace Molin. Lyon - page 5-6.]


15 Aug 1688 - The French ship ‘Oriflamme’ under command of Capt de l' Estrille, with 200 troops aboard, arrives at the bar of Siam. The ship left Brest on 16 February 1688 and passed over Batavia. [Le Blanc, Marcel (1692) - Histoire de la Revolution du Roiaume de Siam, Tome II - Horace Molin. Lyon - page 8.]


'Oriflamme’ was a French Ship of the Line of the third class with a burden of 800 Tons and had nominal 50 guns. The ship was constructed in Brest by Laurent Hubac and was first commissioned in June 1671. On the lower gun deck stood 22 French 18-Pounders. The vessel had a gundeck length of 40 meters and was 10.7 m wide. It had a depth of 15 ft. The ship left Brest on 16 February 1688 and arrived at the bar of Siam on 15 August 1688. The ship's captain was Msr. de l' Estrille. The ship left there on 13 November for Pondicherry, where it arrived in early February 1689. From Pondicherry, it sailed to Phuket (Junk Ceylon) and returned there in Jan 1690. From Pondicherry, the Oriflamme was recalled to France and sunk off the coast of Brittany in February 1691. Rem: Michael Smithies has 9 September. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002) - page 64.]


4 Oct - Madame Phaulcon escapes from Ayutthaya and seeks refuge in the French fort in Bangkok. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002).]


18 Oct - Desfarges hands Madame Phaulcon back to the Siamese. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002).]


2 Nov 1688 - The French General Desfarges was forced to retreat from the fort in Bangkok with his troops. They left Bangkok on three ships the French ‘Oriflamme’ and two Siamese, the ‘Siam’ and the ‘Louvo’ and sail on 13 November for Pondichery, taking two Siamese hostages and leaving only one of the three agreed French hostages, Bishop Louis Laneau. The French arrive early February 1689 in Pondicherry. The ‘Normande’ and the ‘Coche’ left Pondicherry for France on 16 February 1689. Both ships were seized by the Dutch at the Cape of Good Hope, respectively, on 26 April and 5 May. [Ref: The Siamese memoirs of Count Claude de Forbin 1685-1688 - Michael Smithies (1996) Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002).]


1689 - The conflicts between Ayutthaya and Patani reached a climax in 1688. When King Phetracha seized power in Ayutthaya, Patani rebelled by attacking Singora (Songkhla) in 1689 with an army of approximately 10.000 to 15.000 soldiers. Ayutthaya then supported Singora in a counter-attack, defeating Patani the following year (1690) and forcing the raja to send tribute to Ayutthaya again. [Reference: Bradley, Francis R. - Moral Order in a Time of Damnation: The "Hikayat Patani" in Historical Context - Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol 40, No 2 (Jun. 2009), pp 267-293 - Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Department of History, National University of Singapore.]


15 March 1689 - Signing in Versailles of a new Franco-Siamese treaty, with Tachard signing for Siam. [Ref: Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686.]


5 November 1689 - The French court learns the news of the revolution in Siam and the sieges of Mergui and Bangkok. [Ref: Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686.]


February 1690 - Cremation rites are performed for King Narai’s body. [Ref: Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686.]





The Sultanate of Singora was a heavily fortified port city in southern Thailand and the precursor of the present-day town of Songkhla. It was founded in the early 17th century by a Persian, Dato Mogol, and flourished during the reign of his son, Sultan Sulaiman Shah. In 1680, after decades of conflict, the city was destroyed and abandoned remains include forts, city walls, a Dutch cemetery, and the tomb of Sultan Sulaiman Shah.



March 1690 - Tachard leaves for Siam again. [Ref: Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686.]


Jan 1690 - The French General Desfarges returns to Pondicherry after his adventure in Phuket. Recalled to France, he leaves Pondicherry with his remaining troops on the Oriflamme. Desfarges dies before reaching Martinique. The ‘Oriflamme' sinks off the coast of Brittany with Desfarges' two sons and most of the remaining French forces on board in February 1691. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002).]


Nov 1690 - The two remaining Siamese mandarins on board the ‘Gaillard’, Ok-Khun Chamnam and Ok-Khun Vicet, were eventually offloaded at Balassor to return in a Dutch or Portuguese ship. They left in November 1690 for Mergui, carrying a grovelling letter from Tachard to the Phra Klang Kosa Pan. [Smithies, Michael - Robert Challe and Siam - Journal of the Siam Society - Volume 81.1 (1993).]


April 1691 - Bishop Laneau and his companion missionaries are released from prison in Ayutthaya. [Michael Smithies, Michael (1993) - Abbé de Choisy - Journal of a Voyage to Siam 1685-1686.]


1692 - By 1692, Chinese and Japanese merchants and other travellers reported that Patani had rebelled again, though the reasons for refusing to pay tribute are unclear. Ayutthaya made an attack by sea and chased Raja Emas Kelantan and her people into the hills and mountains surrounding Patani, where their familiarity with the terrain allowed them to evade any further attacks against them effectively. In what skirmishes resulted, Palani defeated Siam's army of 6.000 soldiers, but its success was short-lived. After frequent attempts at poisoning the river water tailed to extricate the Siamese army from Patani, the queen eventually surrendered and promised to send tribute to Ayutthaya again. [Reference: Bradley, Francis R. - Moral Order in a Time of Damnation: The "Hikayat Patani" in Historical Context - Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol 40, No 2 (Jun. 2009), pp 267-293 - Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Department of History, National University of Singapore.]


1694 - In 1056 of the Royal Era, a year of the dog, sixth of the decade, [1694] the Municipality of Nakhòn Si Thammarat was taken.


16 Mar 1696 - Louis Laneau (1637-1696), "Bishop of Metellopolis”, dies in Ayutthaya. He was succeeded by Bishop Louis Champion de Cicé (1700-1727).


1698 - The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya mention that an impostor named Tham Thian, formerly an attendant of Prince Aphaithot, the eldest half-brother of King Narai (reign 1656-1688 CE), rebelled again King Phetracha (reign 1688-1703 CE) and gained a significant number of adherents, by giving him out as the prince. The pseudo-prince and his army reached Ayutthaya somewhere in the vicinity of Wat Maha Lok and Wat Monthop. His elephant was struck by one of the eight big guns of the Maha Chai Fortress. He fell off his elephant and was injured. His followers panicked and dispersed in disorder. Tham Thian was captured the following day in the flower garden of Wat Si Fan and executed. [Cushman, Richard D. & Wyatt, David K. (2006). The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Siam Society. p. 333] [Other sources state the event in 1690 or 1696 CE).


Jan 1699 - King Petracha and his Phra Klang Kosa Pan grant a purely formal audience to Tachard in Ayutthaya. [Ref: Smithies, Michael - Desfarges (General), De La Touche (Lieutenant.), Jean Vollant - Des Verquains - Three Military Accounts of the 1688 'Revolution' in Siam (Orchid Press, 2002).]





St. Joseph's Church is situated on the south bank of the Chao Phraya River beside Khlong Takhian. In 1665, the Siamese King granted the French bishops a spot near the Chao Phraya River in the Cochin Chinese quarter called "Ban Pla Het". In 1665-1666 they built the Seminary of Saint Joseph, later renamed the “Seminary of the Holy Angels”. Between 1685 and 1695, the original wooden church was rebuilt in bricks in the European style. In March 1767, the Portuguese settlement and the St Joseph seminary were isolated and surrounded by attacking Burmese. After parlaying with the Burmese General and being promised safety and protection for all persons and property, the bishop surrendered on 23 March. The church and seminary, as well as the Jesuit and Dominican churches, were nevertheless plundered. The houses near the church were burned down, and the fire spread to the church and seminary, which were both reduced to ashes. In 1831 Father Jean-Baptist Pallegoix began the church's restoration, which was completed in 1847.